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中医的特色

林巍

原 文

[1] 在西方,说起中医,人们不免会问其特色是什么。一种数千年的传统医学,博大精深,应该如何概括?

[2] 最突出的,是其生命理念——“天人合一”,即认为整个自然是一个不可分割的整体,强调的是人与大自然的关系。在某种意义上,人体是一个“小宇宙”,整个宇宙则是一个“大的人”。人体内部自成一体,构成五脏、六腑、经络、气血等生理系统,在功能上相互协调、补充,在病理上则相互影响、印证。译 文

[1] In the West, when talking about Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM), people cannot help but ask what its characteristics are. For a medicine of thousand years tradition, how can its profundity be summarized?

[2] Most prominent is the “unity of man and nature”—the concept of life which lays much stress on the relations between man and nature. Considering the universe as an indivisible whole, the human body can be seen as a “microcosm” and the universe an “enlarged person.”Internally, the human body is also a perfect system, consisting of the sub-physiological systems of the five viscera, six hollow organs, meridians, qi and blood and so on. They complement and influence each other functionally and pathologically.譯 注

[1]“博大精深”,形容“物”的可用extensive、broad、profound、profundity 等,如:“中国禅学博大精深”(The Chinese Buddhism is very extensive and profound.);“中国的史诗是博大精深的”(Epic of China is broad and profound.)等。而形容“人”的则可用erudite、extensive knowledge、profound scholarship等,如:He was an erudite wit at the dinner table and, as the reader now sees, in his letters.(正如读者所见,信中展现的他如同餐桌边的他一样,都是博学而风趣的);“她是个博学的人”(She is a lady of extensive knowledge and profound scholarship.)等。

[2]“在功能上相互协调、补充,在病理上则相互影响、印证”,若按字面翻译不免冗赘,不妨将其简化(“协调”“补充”为complement,“影响”“印证”为influence)、合并(将“功能上”“病理上”置后同为副词functionally and pathologically,作状语)。原 文

[3] 在认知方面,中医是一种“象思维”,即不是从解剖实体认识病因,而是以人体内部所表现出的现象作为思维活动的信息依据,从宏观属性和器官相互关系层面把握人体的本质和规律,通过比较,分析,判断病因、病性、病位及邪正之间的影响,最后得出具有属性意义的诊断。在这种理论指导下,中医并不拘泥于微观的物质实体变化,如对于癌症的治疗,即使不依据CT、活检等检查,也可通过症状认识病性,分清寒热虚实,进而辨证施治,达到不同程度的疗效。

[4] 就治疗主导而言,是以“人”为中心,而非以“病”为重点,强调人体自身的“扶正祛邪”,恢复机体阴阳平衡的状态。中医主张充分利用自然资源——在人体外,施加物理的、非对抗性的自然力量,如针刺、推拿等;译 文

[3] Cognitively, TCM is interior image thinking. Its attributive diagnoses are not based on etiology but on information about mental activities, grasping the essence and regularity of the human body from their grand aspects and internal relations. Guided by this theory, TCM is not confined to microscopic physical changes. For example, in the treatment of cancer, without relying on CT (computerized tomography), biopsy and other tests, TCM achieves its medical efficacy through exploring the nature of the illness, differentiating concrete symptoms and healing through dialectical oppositions.

[4] The treatment of TCM is oriented not to diseases but to the person, focusing on “strengthening the bodys resistance to eliminate pathogenic factors” and restoring the bodys balance. In order to make full use of natural resources, TCM manipulates physical and non-confrontational natural forces, such as acupuncture and tuina (Chinese massage) on the译 注

[3]“象思维”是中医特色词,亦称“取象比类”,除interior image thinking外,还可译为imaginative thinking pattern等。该概念源于中医的“脏象理论”,即人体以五脏为中心,以六腑相配合,以气血精津液为物质基础,通过经络使脏与脏、脏与腑、腑与腑密切联系,外连五官九窍、四肢百骸,构成一个有机的整体。

[4]“扶正祛邪”字面意思为support right and dispel evil,其含义还可为 strengthening vital qi and dispelling pathogens、strengthening body resistance and eliminating evil、strengthening the body resistance to eliminate pathogenic factors等;而在相关的中医翻译里,有时会有多种变通,如:“以扶正祛邪的方法治疗肿瘤”(strengthening body resistance to eliminate or suppress pathogenic factors in the treatment of tumors);“扶正祛邪法治療肝癌的实验”(the experiment of strengthening body and dispelling pathogen therapy for hepatocarcinoma)等。原 文

在人体内,则采用植物、动物、矿物等天然药食能源,取得综合疗效。同时,中医的治疗是高度个性化的,避免西医的千人一法。

[5] 中医在预防、养生上则更有特色,主要体现在“上医治未病,中医治已病,下医治大病”的理念上。这对现代医学具有深远意义。

[6] 现代社会中竞争激烈,很多人处于亚健康状态,极易产生不同程度的疲劳,进而转化为慢性疲劳综合征,从而引发心血管病、呼吸系统疾病、精神疾病、肌肉骨关节疾病、生殖疾病、癌症等多种现代疑难病,甚至会出现过劳死。而传统中医文化的药膳、经络按摩、太极拳、静养,甚至相关的养生音乐、养生书法等,都会极大促进人的身心健康,预防疾病的发生。译 文

body, and adopts plants, animals and minerals as edible medicine to treat internal causes, so as to achieve comprehensive results. Therefore, TCM treatments are highly individualized rather than using the standardized patterns of Western Medicine.

[5] This individualization is even more characteristic when it comes to preventing sickness and preserving health. The idea that the “best medicine is set firstly for prevention, secondly for treatment and lastly for terminal illness” has profound implications for modern medicine.

[6] In modern society, confronting fierce competition, many people are in a sub-healthy state, such as experiencing various degrees of fatigue, which causes cardiovascular diseases, respiratory viruses, mental discomfort, musculoskeletal ailments, reproductive pathologies and cancers, and can even die of overwork. In this regard, medicine diet, meridian massage, Tai Chi, rest-cure, even health music and calligraphy can greatly improve peoples physical and mental health as well.译 注

[5]“上医治未病”直译为the superior medicine cures a disease before its onset;“中医治已病”直译为the second best medicine focuses on the diseases only;“下医治大病”直译为the poor medicine treats serious diseases。此处意译,作了相应变通。

[ 6 ]“药膳”的译法多样,有medicine diet、medicinal food、herbal cuisine等,如:“冰糖蒸梨是清肺、化痰、止咳的中国传统药膳”(Stewed pear-rock-candy is a traditional Chinese medical diet for removing heat from the lung, dissolving phlegm and arresting cough.);“药膳厅是博物馆独具特色的组成部分”(Medicinal food hall is the component that museum has distinguishing feature alone.);“国际营养药膳论坛今年将在这里举行”(International Herbal Cuisine Seminar will be held here this year.)等。

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